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Posts from the ‘Protection Concerns’ Category

Training Paralegal Komunitas Pengungsi

(English version below)

Training Paralegal Komunitas untuk Pengungsi ini diselenggarakan pada tanggal 27-29 Juli 2019. Training ini diikuti oleh 22 peserta dengan latar belakang kewarganegaraan yang beragam yang merupakan pengungsi yang telah mengikuti proses seleksi dan berasal dari Jakarta dan Bogor.

Indonesia tidak dapat mengesampingkan komitmen konstitusionalnya serta kewajiban internasionalnya untuk menegakkan hak asasi manusia untuk semua orang, meski belum menjadi pihak dalam Konvensi Pengungsi 1951.

Peraturan Presiden No.125 tahun 2016, sangat disadari, tidak cukup untuk melindungi hak-hak pengungsi yang tinggal di Indonesia. Akan tetapi, perlu diingat, Indonesia telah mengadopsi ke dalam kerangka hukum nasionalnya, pelbagai prinsip hak asasi manusia yang sudah diakui secara universal. Pelanggaran atas hak -hak tersebut sama dengan mendiskriminasi dan melanggar hak asasi manusia para pengungsi.

Pada kenyataannya, SUAKA menemukan bahwa para pengungsi rentan terhadap pelanggaran hak asasi mereka. Sementara itu, mereka tidak memiliki akses terhadap bantuan hukum yang dapat diandalkan. SUAKA melihat pemberdayaan hukum sebagai strategi terbaik untuk mengatasi tantangan ini.

Pemberdayaan dilakukan untuk membangun kapasitas pengungsi dalam memahami hak mereka, mengetahui kerangka hukum Indonesia yang ada, dan memiliki keterampilan advokasi hukum, dengan harapan bahwa pengungsi akan mampu mengadvokasi diri mereka sendiri atau membantu pengungsi lain menghadapi potensi pelanggaran hak-hak pengungsi.

Sebagai sebuah perkumpulan yang menyediakan bantuan hukum sebagai salah satu layanannya, SUAKA berharap pelatihan dan dokumen panduan yang kami buat dapat menjadi referensi bagi praktisi bantuan hukum yang melakukan inisiatif pemberdayaan hukum dan mengembangkan program paralegal komunitas pengungsi.

Kami menyampaikan apresiasi yang setinggi-tingginya untuk para anggota dan relawan SUAKA yang telah menyusun buku panduan paralegal komunitas pengungsi dan menyelenggarakan training ini.


Community-Based Paralegal Training was conducted on 27-29 July 2019. The training was attended by 22 participants with a diverse country of origin backgrounds, who were refugees that follow the selection process and resides in Jakarta and Bogor.

Despite that Indonesia is not a signatory country to the 1951 Refugee Convention, Indonesia shall not override its constitutional commitment as well as its international obligation to uphold human rights for everyone.

It is well aware that the Presidential Regulation No.125 of 2016 is not sufficient to protect the rights of the refugee who stay in Indonesia, however, most of universally recognized human rights have been adopted into Indonesia legal framework, which violation against refugee rights can be deemed as discriminatory and violations to those universally recognized human rights.

In reality, SUAKA found that refugees are prone to violations of their human rights. Meanwhile, they are lack access to any credible legal counsel. To overcome this challenge, SUAKA sees legal empowerment as the best strategy that builds refugee capacity in understanding their human rights, knowing the existing Indonesia legal framework, and the skill of legal advocacy, with the hope that refugee will be able to advocate themselves or assisting other refugees against any potential violations of refugee rights.

Along with the establishment of SUAKA as an association who provide legal aid as one of our services, we are pleased to present this training manual as a reference for legal aid practitioner who conducts legal empowerment initiative and develops a refugee community paralegal program.

High appreciation for the contribution of SUAKA’s members and volunteers for drafting this training manual and hopefully can be useful for the refugee community in upholding their human rights.

Protection for refugees in Indonesia: A state responsibility

Refugees in Indonesia have staged many rallies this year. The street hosting the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) Indonesia, Jl. Kebon Sirih in Central Jakarta, was filled with refugees, requesting protection and a solution to their situation living in limbo for years, particularly from June to August.

Refugee migration is increasing worldwide as a result of civil wars and internal conflicts in various parts of the world. The UN estimates that as of last June, Indonesia had been a host to almost 14,000 refugees and asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq, Myanmar, Sudan, etc.

Indonesia has a responsibility as a state in providing protection for refugees and asylum seekers. Indonesia is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. However, is being signatory to the aforementioned conventions the only pre-requisite for a state in providing protection for refugees in Indonesia?

As a member of the UN, Indonesia is signatory to eight core international human rights conventions, some of which have been adopted in domestic regulations. Apart from international conventions, Presidential Regulation 125/2016 on the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers in Indonesia has acknowledged and recognized refugees in a national legal context, even though protection clauses are lacking within the said regulation.

Ratifying an international convention may require the state to do more work, but further research is needed on the potential impacts on the state’s readiness in adhering to the international standards of human rights fulfillment, among other things. What are the current solutions for refugees and asylum seekers in Indonesia?

The UN cites three main durable solutions: assisted voluntary repatriation, resettlement and integration with the local community. The first choice is hardly a possible option as the conflicts in refugees’ country of origin rarely subside; while the non-refoulement principle under international customary law considers making refugees return to their own country and endangering their safety a breach of international law. Resettlement, which is highly hoped by refugees as the best solution for them, also does not seem possible with the rise of extreme nationalism, Islamophobia and resistance from countries such as Australia, the United States as well as European countries who used to accept refugees from Indonesia.

This situation leaves us with the third option. As a non-signatory member of the 1951 Refugee Convention and its Optional Protocol of 1967, the government might say integration with the local community is not a possible option. However, integration is inevitable between the refugee community and Indonesian society. The refugees have already started integrating in society ever since they arrived on Indonesian soil.

Ending the conflicts in the respective countries would be a utopic solution for refugee migration in general. With a minimum chance of going back to their countries and being resettled, living in limbo for more than eight years as the average waiting time to be resettled, has greatly affected the mental health of refugees in Indonesia. Assuming the average waiting time is lengthened due to the minimal successful resettlement cases and steady influx of refugees into Indonesia, the government must start preparing for the unavoidable consequences of the current situation by starting to provide basic rights to refugees and legal recognition.

In India, Tibetan refugees’ right to residency is contingent upon a Registration Certificate (RC) which is a legal document issued by Indian authorities, equivalent to an identity card. RC issuance to Tibetans started in 1956 when the Dalai Lama was exiled, followed by a mass exodus of Tibetan refugees into India. RCs are valued as they allow Tibetans to legally travel and work within the country, serving as an identity document and a prerequisite for an Identity Certificate. Although currently, the process to acquire an RC is arduous, the legal recognition remains clear for Tibetans in India.

In 2000, Malaysia as the host of more than 150,000 refugees and asylum seekers provided nonrenewable six-month work permits for Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. In 2015, Malaysia had considered in multiple cases the creation of temporary work permits. The permits were supposed to benefit Rohingya refugees to be legally employed in Malaysia, though the plan did not materialize.

Indonesia’s government can learn from the practices in India and Malaysia as progressive commitments from states who are not signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. For instance, Indonesia can create a Kartu Izin Tinggal Sementara untuk Pengungsi (Refugee Temporary Stay Permit Card) or collaborate in partnerships with local and international agencies to establish livelihood opportunities.

Indonesia has to adopt long-term strategies rather than ad-hoc policies to prevent a bottleneck in providing legal recognition as well as sufficient protection for refugees and asylum seekers.

by Julio Castor, Human rights lawyer and member of SUAKA, an association advocating protection for asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia.

This article originally appeared on The Jakarta Post, link below:

Supporting System of Refugee and Asylum Seekers in Indonesia

Lack of Support Services

The limited capacity of UNHCR in Indonesia to deal with increasing numbers of asylum seekers and low resettlement places leads to significant waiting periods. The lack of information and assistance available to asylum seekers and refugees to support themselves and their families leads to frustration and desperation for many people of concern. Read more

Legal Framework and Role of UNHCR to RSD


There are several factors that result in refugees and asylum seekers being denied effective protection in Indonesia. These factors include lack of legal protection, long waiting periods for permanent resettlement, limited basic livelihood support (housing, healthcare, education, and work rights) and inhumane conditions in detention centres.

Despite the significant risks arising from travelling in people smugglers’ boats to Australia, the circumstances facing refugees and asylum seekers in Indonesia often lead people to make a dangerous decision.

Since 2011, government of Indonesia is in favor to develop Presidential Regulation on Handling Refugee and Asylum Seeker or Peraturan Presiden (Perpres) tentang Penanganan Orang Asing Pencari Suaka dan Pengungsi.  According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in early 2015, the Perpres will be attached with the Integrated Fixed Procedure, or Prosedur Tetap Terpadu, on Handling Refugee and Asylum Seeker. But, up until now, the Perpres is not yet adopted. Read more