Glossary and List of Abbreviations on COVID-19
This Glossary and List of Abbreviations compiled from various sources, mainly WHO, CDC, Ministries of Health from Australia, United Kingdom, also reliable and verified news sources. This post will be edited and updated, as soon as there is new information.
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According to WHO, coronavirus or corona virus is a large family of viruses that cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as MERS and SARS. The name “coronavirus” comes from a crown-like projection on its surface. “Corona” in Latin means “crown.”
stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This name was established by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV) on 11 February 2020 as the name of the new corona virus that causes COVID-19.
COVID-19 (Eng/Ind) stands for Corona Virus Disease 2019. This disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
In COVID-19 context, it is a security measure taken by authorities in an area to contain a viral outbreak. Usually, with this kind of security measure, the activities in an area come to a total halt.
For example in Hubei Province during COVID-19 outbreak, no public transportation, no non-urgent public service. People are expected to stay at home at all times, with the consequences of jail time or a hefty fine.
Isolation (Eng) This involves separating ill persons from well persons
Self-Isolation (Eng) Same as above, basically, a diagnosis of COVID-19 should trigger isolation to separate ill persons with the virus from those who are healthy.
Quarantine (Eng) This involves separating ill persons, who have been exposed to the infection, from other well persons during the incubation period of an illness
Self-Quarantine (Eng) is designed to restrict the movement of healthy people who may have been exposed to someone who has tested positive for COVID-19. The CDC suggests staying at home for 14 days from the exposure.
Pandemic (Eng) A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease that affects large numbers of people.
Epidemic (Eng) The constant presence of a disease in a population in a geographical area
Outbreak (Eng) The number of disease cases that exceed what is normally expected
Wabah (Ind) See Outbreak.
ODP (abb-Ind) Orang Dalam Pengawasan in English: Person Under Supervision
ODP is a person, that usually has mild symptoms such as cough, sore throat, fever, but there is no close contact with positive sufferers.
ODP usually asked to be self-isolate/self-quarantine at home until they developed escalated symptoms.
PDP (abb-Ind) Pasien Dalam Pengawasan, in English: Patience Under Supervision
PDP is categorized according to symptoms, such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat. Or from observations, there is a disturbed lower airway and have been in close contact with positive patients or those who are infected.
OTG (abb-Ind) Orang Tanpa Gejala, in English: asymptomatic person. see: Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic (Eng) means that a person is detected with the virus but with no development of symptoms.
There are reports of asymptomatic infections (detection of virus with no development of symptoms) and pre-symptomatic infections (detection of virus prior to development of symptoms) with SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic cases have been reported as part of contact tracing efforts in some countries.
Flattening the curve (Eng)
Flattening the curve refers to community isolation measures that keep the daily number of disease cases at a manageable level for medical providers.
In epidemiology, the curve refers to the projected number of new cases over a period of time.
The idea of flattening the curve is to stagger the number of new cases over a longer period so that people have better access to care.
Herd Immunity (Eng)
Herd Immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through previous infections or vaccination, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Herd immunity can be achieved through a vaccine, like in the case of smallpox and measles.
It can also be achieved naturally as people are infected, recover, and are then immune to further infection. This works if chances of reinfection are low or, ideally, zero.
It is a controversial idea because, while the theory of herd immunity is viable, it’s still unclear how contagious the new coronavirus is and how severely it affects different demographics.
Imported Case (Eng) COVID-19 cases that come from travelers who have just arrived from abroad or areas with coronavirus outbreaks.
Local transmission (Eng) COVID-19 cases transmitted locally, due to close contact with previously known cases. Or, people who have close contact with coronavirus patients.
An antiseptic is a substance that stops or slows down the growth of microorganisms. They’re frequently used in hospitals and other medical settings to reduce the risk of infection during surgery and other procedures.
Different types of antiseptics are used in medical settings. These include hand rubs, hand washes, and skin preparations. Some are also available for home use.
Please check the warning and direction on the package before you use antiseptic on your skin/body.
Disinfectants are antiseptic that ONLY can and should be applied to nonliving surfaces, such as countertops and handrails.
Both antiseptics and disinfectants contain chemical agents that are sometimes called biocides. Hydrogen peroxide is an example of a common ingredient in both antiseptics and disinfectants. However, antiseptics usually contain lower concentrations of biocides than disinfectants do.
Rapid test (Eng) Rapid tests are designed for use where a preliminary screening test result is required and is especially useful in resource-limited countries.
Rapid testing for COVID-19 are effective to slow down the transmission because it can be applied to screen thousands of people per day at a fast pace.
Rumah sakit rujukan (Ind) Referral hospital,
For COVID-19 context, it is a term used to specify hospitals that designated for COVID-19 treatment.
These hospital is equipped with the necessary medical professionals (doctors, nurses, paramedics), equipment (ventilators, test kits, etc), and specific ward (isolation ward, Intensive Care Unit, etc)